Architectural Design I - ARC255
Prof. Joseph A. Betz, Architect
- Form: Additive/Subtractive
- Volume: Defining Spaces
- Enclosure: Planes & Spaces
- Circulation (Site Plan - see drive)
- Hierarchy & Structure (Site Plan - see drive)
Conceptual Architectural Design I & II Course Material Outline
- ARC 255 - Architectural Design I is concept driven
- ARC 257 - Architectural Design II is process and method driven
Concepts (as outlined in the Course text book, Architecture: Form Space and Order)
- Form: Additive/Subtractive, Mass/Void, interactive strategies
- Space/Volume definition, patterns, systems and associations
- Spatial Relationships: abutting, overlapping, space within a space
- Path Space Relationships: outside, along the edge, terminate in a space
- Circulation Patterns: linear, radial, grid, network, spiral, composite
- Spatial Ordering Principles: axis, symmetry, hierarchy, rhythm, datum, transformation
- Convergent and Divergent thinking
- Idea Formation => 2-D Diagram => 3-D Architecture
- Idea formation strategies
- Contextual analysis of existing systems and patterns (3-D Arch. => 2-D Diagrams)
- Associations of new systems and patterns
- Research, precedents and prototype possibilities
- Reductive strategies and variable elimination
- Pattern synthesis and conceptual path/space diagram
- Three dimensional possibilities and fit
- Model testing (sketch models, 3-D CAD, form models)
- Development, Refinement and Constraint Strategies
- Constraining unconstrained problems, elimination strategies
Tools/Techniques (parts learned in Introduction to Graphics)
- Hand drawing and doodling
- Diagrams: space, path, structure, enclosure, use/function, etc.
- Sketch Model: scale, light, texture, color
- Plan/Section/Elevation Relationships
- AutoCAD 2-D and 3-D Constructions
- AutoCAD simulations and videos
- Presentations: Graphic, Interactive, 3-D Models, Written/Oral
Heuristic Approaches (as modeled/outlined in Peter Rowe’s JAE article 36:1, pp18-23, 1982)
Means Ends relationship and speculative starting points to design (one or more)
- Anthropometric Analogies (physical construction of space)
- Literal Analogies (spatial/formal/abstract patterns that hold meanings or metaphors)
- Contextual Relations (natural and built relationships and surrounding influences)
- Typologies (use of successful existing design solutions)
- Stylistic Languages (i.e., classical, gothic, modern, signature rules that define styles)
Types of Function
- Particular function is based on individual preferences (subjective measurement).
- Universal function is based on formulaic criteria and standards such as cost, utility (objective measurement).
- Providing space for function (Box) vs. Expression of function in form (Stadium) vs. Metaphor of function in form (Duck)
- Functions change and evolve over time... if not the building does not survive!
- Functional requirements are best guesses allowing modification by the user.
- Functions that require more space than the physical space designed will not work (zero sum test).
- Form follows function: activity (i.e., shape) vs. technical (i.e., innovative skin) vs. expressive (i.e., metaphor)
Rules for Function
- Think of a function as a area with the proportions 1:1 to 1:1.5. Rarely do functions exceed proportions of 1:2.
- Never walk through the middle of a function in a space to get to another space; terminate in a function or walk around.
- A space should include the function, circulation that does not interfere with the function and any spatial interaction.
- Circulation is considered a type of function, keep it as short and simple as possible for cost and code constraints.
- Narrative of client story, values and ideas
- Ranking of functions and values
- Sorting / Segregating /categorize of functions and ideas
- Contextual analysis of patterns and systems
- Pattern recognition, integration and manipulation
- Research of existing prototypes, concepts and ideas
- Conceptual combinations of analogies to form new ideas
- Three dimensional sketch models
- Null hypothesis for fit (what doesn't work)
- Architectural Design I & II typically applies concepts in an unconstrained environment/platform for clarity. Conceptual constraints include:
- Structure (columns, girders and slabs)
- Efficiency (circulation, function to space ratio, definition of space - can be equated to codes and cost conceptually)
- Contextual patterns and systems (forms, circulation, space, etc.)
- Architectural Design III & IV typically applies the following constraints: building, zoning and energy codes, cost, construction, etc.
- Architectural Design V typically applies concepts and constraints from many courses in the program.
Types of Learning Activities in the course
- Classroom Lectures
- Literature Search/Research
- Hands-on designing and testing
- Development/Refinement/Improvement Process
- Oral & Graphic Presentations
- Group Analysis
- Peer Review
- Private Journals and Ranking
Types of Peer Comparative Analysis of Concepts
(based on 4-5 projects identifying extreme ends/tails; i.e., most/least or best/worst projects to construct working definitions of concepts)
- Qualitative descriptions of concepts applied (the differences in how this happens)
- Quantitative counting of occurrences (how many times does this happen)
- Survey of peer attitudes/preferences (what does the group see to confirm this happening)